Updates

Muddy groundwater in northern part of Jakarta (picture: Amrta Institute).

 

JAKARTA, KOMPAS – Good quality groundwater mapping in the northern Jakarta water basin or CAT Jakarta can help poor communities living in the area who have difficulty accessing clean water. However, the expansion of piped-water services using surface water sources still needs to be considered as a long-term goal.


"The main source for households and commercial activities is ideally from piped water, given that the water has been processed and distributed through closed piping channels," said Director of Amrta Institute Nila Ardhianie, when contacted on Monday (31/7). Moreover, if the piped water is processed from surface water such as rivers, lakes, or dams, groundwater use will be reduced so that the risk of land subsidence decreases.


However, the condition of piped water in Jakarta is still concerning. Based on Jakarta in Figures 2010-2016 from the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) processed by Amrta Institute, more than 60 percent of the water needs in Jakarta each year are fulfilled with groundwater extraction.


In 2000, residents and commuters in Jakarta were 10.48 million with the total water need of 995 million cubic meters. A total of 648 million cubic meters, or 65 percent, comes from groundwater. After 15 years, the number of residents and commuters reached 12.72 million and need 1.2 billion cubic meters of water. Groundwater is used to meet 63 percent of water need or 761 million cubic meters.


Therefore, Nila agreed with the proposal of Groundwater Conservation Center (BKAT). BKAT recommends that spots of good quality groundwater in the northern water basin to be utilized to meet the water needs of lower middle-income households.


BKAT is currently mapping good quality groundwater in northern Jakarta water basin. The team has so far obtained good quality groundwater spots from free aquifers in Pademangan, Koja, Kebon Jeruk, Joglo, Medan Satria, Babelan, Neglasari, and Pinang.


Head of BKAT Mochamad Wachyudi Memed said after the good quality ground water spots have been completely mapped, he will advise central and local governments to utilize groundwater as a source of clean water for residents living in surrounding area. The utilization could be in the form of public toilets and drinking water treatments.


Nevertheless, Nila asked such a strategy is not used as a long-term measure to reduce the risk of land subsidence. "We recommend that piped water services be prioritized in the northern part of the city because the groundwater is already limited," she said.


Wachyudi agreed with Nila. Groundwater will only be reserved. He hoped the government ensures that poor families can access piped water at affordable rates. This is due to expensive costs of improving piped water services.

 

Translated from Kompas Daily Newspaper, August 1, page 27.

Artikel oleh Nila Ardhianie, Direktur Amrta Institute, dimuat di Harian Kompas, 24 Oktober 2016

 

Dengan jumlah penduduk  lebih dari 10 juta jiwa dan pelaju 3 juta orang, kebutuhan air yang diperlukan ibu kota  sungguh sangat besar. Tahun 2015  saja setidaknya diperlukan 950 juta meter kubik air untuk mencukupi kebutuhan harian penduduk, industri dan komersial. 

Layanan air permukaan melalui sistem perpipaan oleh PAM Jaya dan operatornya baru mampu memasok  331 juta meter kubik atau sekitar 35 persen, sisanya sebanyak 65 persen dapat dipastikan diambil dari air tanah karena sungai dan sumber air lainnya di Jakarta tidak dapat dimanfaatkan langsung untuk mensuplai kebutuhan air bersih warga.

Meningkatnya jumlah penduduk, aktivitas ekonomi dan industri membuat kebutuhan air meningkat dan belum mampunya PDAM melayani seluruh penduduk dan industri membuat pemanfaatan air tanah menjadi luar biasa besar. Pengambilan air tanah yang berlebihan dan tidak seimbang dengan imbuhannya membuat muka air tanah menurun dan berdampak pada penurunan tanah atau amblesan tanah. Di Jakarta fenomena amblesan tanah mulai dicatat terjadi sejak awal 1990an. Berdasarkan berbagai studi yang dilakukan, penurunan tanah Jakarta terjadi bervariasi secara spasial dan waktu  antara 3-10 cm per tahun. 

Meskipun menjadi gantungan dari sebagian besar warga Jakarta, sayangnya perhatian terhadap air tanah masih sangat kurang. Jarang sekali air tanah menjadi isu sentral yang dibicarakan dalam kebijakan-kebijakan publik baik tingkat nasional terkait dengan posisi Jakarta sebagai ibukota maupun lokal. Hal ini karena air tanah secara fisik tidak terlihat sehingga kerap lolos dari perhatian, kurang dihargai dan kurang diatur dalam peraturan perundangan. 

Dampak penurunan tanah sebetulnya sudah dapat dilihat dari meningkatnya risiko banjir seperti meluasnya luasan banjir, meningkatnya frekuensi dan luasan rob serta  banyaknya bangunan yang retak dan rusak termasuk infrakstruktur publik seperti jalan dan jembatan.  Juga amblesnya rumah dan bangunan milik warga, retak atau rusaknya pipa air di tanah, tidak berfungsinya drainase secara optimal, perubahan aliran sungai, intrusi air laut, makin tingginya biaya perawatan bangunan dan infrastruktur, merosotnya nilai bangunan sampai menurunnya kualitas hidup warga dan tergangunya aktivitas serta produktivitas penduduk Jakarta.

Di Shanghai total kerugian akibat penurunan tanah dalam 40 tahun terakhir adalah 35 milyar Dolar AS. Di Belanda pada 2006 kerugian mencapai 3,5 milyar Euro, sementara di China per tahun rata-rata kerugian adalah 1,5 milyar Dolar AS. 

Penyebab penurunan tanah yang terjadi di Jakarta adalah pemanfaatan air tanah berlebihan, pembebanan bangunan, kompaksi tanah dan fenomena tektonik. Sampai saat ini belum ada penelitian solid dan komprehensif yang menghubungkan penurunan tanah di setiap lokasi di Jakarta dengan penyebabnya, akan tetapi ada cukup banyak artikel ilmiah yang menghubungkan penurunan tanah Jakarta dengan over eksploitasi air tanah. Hal ini  sama seperti yang terjadi di Tokyo, Bangkok, Shanghai, Dhaka, HoChi Minh, Taipe, Rafsanjan, California dan lain-lain. 

Di Tokyo hubungan pengambilan air tanah berlebihan dengan amblesan air tanah sangat nyata terlihat. Setelah penurunan tanah terus terjadi pada awal 1960 pemerintah  membatasi secara ketat pemakaian air tanah, pada akhir 1960-an muka air tanah mulai naik dan awal 1970-an penurunan air tanah mulai berhenti. Pada awal 1970-an Jepang juga banyak membuat proyek substitusi pengganti air tanah yang ditujukan bagi industri, domestik, pertanian. Di Bangkok pemakaian air tanah diperketat sejak 1985 dan terus berlangsung sampai sekarang, dampak positifnya belakangan Bangkok berhasil mengurangi pemakaian air tanah sampai hanya tinggal 10%.

Pengelolaan dan Data Air Tanah

Belajar dari kota-kota lain yang berhasil mengelola air tanahnya maka Jakarta perlu segera membatasi  secara ketat pemakaian air tanah, mengembangkan layanan air perpipaan atau pengembangan perusahaan daerah air minum, mengelola data air tanah dan recharge untuk wilayah-wilayah yang sudah kritis. 

Sebagai dasar pengelolaan dibutuhkan data yang komprehensif meliputi jumlah sumur, dimana lokasinya,  kedalaman, volume pemakaian dan kapan dibuat. Begitu juga dengan kondisi air tanah dari waktu ke waktu, berapa banyak air diambil dari sistem serta kualitasnya. Membangun data base air tanah sangat penting apalagi penelitian Delinom et.al (2015)  menunjukkan bahwa dasar cekungan air tanah Jakarta ternyata bukan merupakan garis yang melandai dari selatan ke utara tetapi menunjukan adanya struktur tinggian dan rendahan serta lebih tipis yang berimplikasi pada jumlah cadangan air tanah Jakarta jumlahnya mungkin lebih sedikit dari yang selama ini diperkirakan. 

Memang untuk mengetahui berapa banyak air tanah dipakai setiap bulan atau setiap tahun bukan pekerjaan mudah. Untuk mengetahui lokasi sumur air tanah cukup sulit, apalagi jika berada di kompleks bangunan besar.  Dari luar tidak bisa dilihat dan mudah sekali bagi pemilik gedung untuk menyembunyikan sumurnya. Akan tetapi sesulit apapun data adalah pondasi penting pengelolaan, seperti sering disampaikan guru manajemen Peter Drucker, what get measured, get managed. Bahkan Napolean Bonaparte yang tidak hidup di abad informasi pun mengatakan war is ninety percent information. 

 

Nila Ardhianie, pemerhati sumber daya air

In June 2, 2016, in LBH Jakarta office, Jakarta, a public discussion entitled “Discussion and Public Meeting: 19 Years of Water Privatization in Jakarta” was organized. It reveals the problems of water privatization in Jakarta, such as skyrocketing water tariff, financial losses to the public water utility, and substandard services delivered by the private water operators. The speakers in this discussion were Prof. Frans Limahelu (law expert), Andreas Harsono (human rights activist), Nila Ardhianie (director of Amrta Institute for Water Literacy).

Amrta Institute for Water Literacy mendapatkan hak untuk menerjemahkan dan mendistribusikan buku Tata Kelola Air di Paris: Kisah Sukses Pengelolaan Air oleh Pemerintah Kota di Indonesia. Peneliti Amrta Institute Irfan Zamzami menerjemahkan buku ini, sedangkan Nila Ardhianie memberi akta sambutan.

Buku ini diterbitkan oleh Gramedia Pustaka Utama dan diluncurkan pada 8 April 2015, dengan pembicara Menteri Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat, David Boys (Public Services International), Yenny Wahid (Wahid Foundation), dan Nila Ardhianie, dengan moderator Andreas Harsono (Koordinator Human Rights Watch Indonesia). Turut hadir sebagai peserta adalah Bambang Widjoyanto (Ketua KPK), Satoko Kishimoto (Transnational Institute), Meera Karunanthan (Blue Planet Project), warga penggugat dalam gugatan warga negara melawan privatisasi layanan air Jakarta, PAM Jaya, dan serikat pekerja di lingkungan PAM.

Silakan menghubungi Amrta Institute jika Anda membutuhkan buku ini.

Kuasa hukum pemohon usai mendengarkan amar putusan perkara uji materi UU SDA, Rabu (18/2). Foto: Humas MK

 

By Nila Ardhianie

Researcher at Amrta Institute for Water Literacy

This article first appeared on The Jakarta Post

 

The Constitutional Court recently annulled Water Resources Law No. 7/2004 and reinstated Water Law No. 11/1974. The court granted arguments of the plaintiffs, who insisted that the 2004 law had encouraged privatization and commercialization of water resources at the expense of people'€™s rights to water.

Through Resolution 64/292 passed in 2010, to which Indonesia is a party, the United Nations General Assembly recognized the human right to water and sanitation and acknowledged that clean drinking water and sanitation are essential to the realization of all human rights.

The resolution calls upon states and international organizations to provide financial resources, capacity building and technology to help countries ensure safe, clean, accessible and affordable drinking water and sanitation for all.

The court'€™s ruling emphasizes the state'€™s presence in water management. The state should exercise control over water, which can materialize if the government, as mandated by the Constitution, acts as policymaker, supervisor, regulator, manager and controller of water affairs.

Supervisory function is conducted by issuing and revoking permits, licenses and concessions. As regulator the government works with the House of Representatives in creating legislation, while managing jobs requires the government to be directly involved in state-owned companies as a shareholder. Through control mechanisms the government should ensure that water is used for the well-being of the people.

Water use for consumption and irrigation should be freed from paying water management costs, as long as it takes directly from the water sources. However, if the water source is insufficient, the state is responsible for providing clean water through water distribution.

Regarding the right to water, the court justices underlined that the right was a human right, which could not be separated from any individuals. However, the second kind of right, i.e. the right to exploit water resources, should be interpreted as a tool for the government to control water exploitation. The private sector cannot claim ownership of water sources, but use water allocated by the government.

The principle in the Water Resources Law that says '€œwater users should cover the costs of water management'€, should instead confirm that water itself cannot be monetized, according to the court justices. Besides, it should be flexible and cannot be applied equally to all kinds of water use. The justices specifically mention that water use for people'€™s farming should be exempted from water management costs.

Water provision for other countries is prohibited unless the domestic basic water needs have already been fulfilled, which cover basic needs, sanitation, farming, energy, industry, mining, transporting, forestry and biodiversity, sport, tourism, ecosystem, aesthetics and other needs.

All of these considerations were used by the justices to review the government regulations derived from Water Resources Law to examine how the law was interpreted. From this examination, the court stated that the Water Resources Law was unconstitutional.

The plaintiffs and their lawyers insisted that so-called commercialization of water should stop, meaning the companies must cease to operate. As home to one of the world'€™s biggest bottled water companies and two of the biggest water concession holders on the planet, a chaotic situation stemming from the Court'€™s verdict is inevitable.

Currently there are 46 firms as a result of clean water privatization ( public-private partnership ) in many scale models operating in Indonesia. Over 600 bottled water companies with only 94 registered as members of the Association of Indonesian Producers of Packaged Drinking Water ( Aspadin ) produce and sell bottled water to the local and international markets. For these companies, the reinstatement of Law No. 11/1974 is a total loss as it does not recognize utilization of water and or water resources for commercial purposes.

The only clause related to water utilization for commercial purposes says the '€œcommercialization'€ should be aimed at improving the welfare and prosperity of the people and be conducted by the government, both at central and regional levels and be guided by the principles of brotherhood and economic democracy.

After more than 10 years since the controversial law was enacted, the central government has issued many implementing regulations and numerous regional governments have conducted many activities using this law as legal basis. The government must now come up with a legal framework to ensure the water resources in Indonesia are regulated properly under Law No. 11/1974. The reborn law will leave many '€œblank spots'€ in water resources management.

Many parties, including companies that have invested in the water business, are eagerly waiting for what President Joko '€œJokowi'€ Widodo will do in response to the Court'€™s verdict. If the current government decides to accept the court ruling, all the existing regulations that violate the old law must be revised, but if it rejects the verdict it will have to draft a bill and submit it to the House for deliberation.

Whatever the choice, the government should act fast and properly. Public Works and Public Housing Minister as the leading sector in water related issues should provide the President and Vice President proper information for better decision making.

By Irfan Zamzami

Researcher at Amrta Institute for Water Literacy

This article first appeared on The Jakarta Post

 

Jakarta Governor Basuki '€œAhok'€ Tjahaja Purnama has several times expressed his discontent with the performance of the city'€™s water services. He is, unsurprisingly, outspoken about the substandard service provided by private water operators, especially when it comes to water leakage levels.

However, the city administration has yet to take significant action regarding contract agreements between the city-owned water company PAM Jaya and two private water operators, Palyja and Aetra, which will determine the quality of water services delivered to residents of Jakarta.

The plan to take over water services from private operators was close to realization in January. The takeover was to be done through a share repurchase and Ahok stated that this would be completed before June.

In April, however, Ahok said that the city administration was not able to do anything about privatized water services in Jakarta because the court ruling on the legality of transferring responsibility for water services from private to public hands was still being challenged and this process may take many years to resolve.

Ahok'€™s reasoning is questionable. The citizens'€™ lawsuit against Jakarta'€™s privatized water service had been filed in 2013.

Indeed, when Ahok said that his administration would purchase the shares of private water operators, the administration was still in the middle of a lawsuit.

The situation remains mired in a legal dispute. Instead of waiting for another court decision that may take years to eventuate, the governor can and should take action now.

There are at least two feasible options available to Ahok to end the privatized landscape: through a share repurchase agreement, such as he declared in January, or through termination.

These two options ought to be seriously considered for several reasons. First, it has been a considerable length of time since the city administration first announced its plan to end privatized water services. This original plan was offered to the public in the era of then governor Joko '€œJokowi'€ Widodo in 2013 when he said that he would cancel the contracts with private firms. Two years and two governors later and the plan to do so has not gone anywhere.

Second, both share repurchase and termination by the first party ( PAM Jaya ) are lawful actions. In fact, these two options are provided for in the existing contract agreement with the private firms. There is no reason to believe that ending privatization through these options will harm the image of Jakarta as a sound city for investment.

Third, pursuing these options could save the city from massive financial losses. In 2011, the PAM Jaya director said that if the contract agreements with the private operators are continued until their listed expiry date in 2022, the financial losses borne by PAM Jaya will have accumulated to as much as Rp 18.2 trillion.

These losses are not the financial losses of PAM Jaya alone. Thanks to support letters issued by the governor and finance minister, PAM Jaya'€™s losses will be buttressed by public budgets.

It is simply logical to spend far less money now in covering the cost of terminating privatized water services and in so doing save the public budget from propping up financial black holes than in continuing a policy that will cost a great deal more and eventually devastate public finances.

Fourth, Jakarta would not be alone in terminating privatized water services. In fact, there is presently a growing global trend of governments ending privatized water services and bringing back public water management. Paris offers a prime example of this trend. Paris was once a city that operated under a privatized system.

It is the home of Suez Environment, the owner of 51 percent of shares in Palyja. In 2010, Paris decided to end its privatized water services and in so doing has saved 35 million euro and reduced 8 percent of tariffs in the first year of its public management operation.

According to an assessment by the Public Services Research Unit, from 2000 to 2014 alone, there were 180 cases around the world involving the return of water services from private to public management.

Among them, 136 happened in high income countries and 94 of the cases were caused by contract termination with the rest through share repurchase and contract expiration policies.

There is no significant reason for the capital to remain passive at this point. Once water management is returned to the public, Jakarta can begin using its resources to improve water services.

Until then, improvement in the quality of life in this area will prove illusory because exclusive rights to deliver water services will remain in the hands of private operators.