Jakarta’s water service was privatized when PAM Jaya (a public water company in Jakarta) and two private operators signed a cooperation agreement effective from February 1, 1998.1 Since then, the water service has been divided into two parts; PT PAM Lyonnaise Jaya (Palyja) manages the west part of the city and PT Aetra Air Jakarta (Aetra) manages the east part. The agreement is a concession that will be in place for 25 years.